Virtual Machines
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Graceful’s VulnVM is web application running on a virtual machine, it’s designed to simulate a simple eCommerce style website which is purposely vulnerable to a number of well know security issues commonly seen in web applications. This is really a pre-release preview of the project but it’s certainly functional as it stands, but I’m planning on doing a lot of work on this in the near future.

The plan is ultimately to have the application vulnerable to a large number of issues with a selection of different filters at different difficulties that way the as testers become better at detecting and exploiting issues the application can get hardened against common exploitation methods to allow the testers a wider ranger of experiences.

The first filters have now been implemented! The application now supports “levels” where Level 1 includes no real filtration of user input and Level 2 includes a simple filter for each vulnerable function.

Currently it’s vulnerable to:

  • SQL Injection (Error-based)
  • SQL Injection (Blind)
  • Reflected Cross-Site Scripting
  • Stored Cross-Site Scripting
  • Insecure Direct-Object Reference
  • Username Enumeration
  • Path Traversal
  • Exposed phpinfo()
  • Exposed Administrative Interface
  • Weak Admin Credentials

Extracting the Virtual Machine

Install p7zip to unzip *.7z files on Fedora:

sudo dnf install p7zip

Install p7zip to unzip *.7z files on Debian and Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install p7zip

Extract the archive:

7z x Seattle-

Then you can simply start up the virtual machine using Virtual Box! The root user account has a password of PASSWORD


Minotaur CTF

Minotaur is a boot2root CTF. Once you load the VM, treat it as a machine you can see on the network, i.e. you don't have physical access to this machine. Therefore, tricks like editing the VM's BIOS or Grub configuration are not allowed. Only remote attacks are permitted. There are a few flag.txt files around to grab. /root/flag.txt is your ultimate goal.

I suggest you use VirtualBox with a Host Only adapter to run Minotaur fairly painlessly.

The VM will assign itself a specific IP address (in the range). Do not change this, as the CTF will not work properly without an IP address of 192.168.56.X.

If you load the .ova file in VirtualBox, you can see this machine from another VirtualBox machine with a "Host Only" network adapter. You can see the machine from VMWare Workstation by: - Going into Virtual Network Editor and changing the VMnet0 network to "Bridged to: VirtualBox Host-Only Ethernet Adapter". - Setting your VMWare network adapter to Custom (VMnet0) - If necessary, resetting your network adapter (e.g. ifdown eth0 && ifup eth0) so that you get a address.


The VM is located here: [File size: 691MB]


  1. This CTF has a couple of fairly heavy password cracking challenges, and some red herrings.
  2. One password you will need is not on rockyou.txt or any other wordlist you may have out there. So you need to think of a way to generate it yourself.

Contact @RobertWinkel for more hints.